WASHINGTON -- Prospects dimmed on Monday for the $25 billion bailout that U.S. automakers say they desperately need to get through a bleak and dangerous December.
Although all sides agree that the Big Three U.S. automakers are in peril, battered by the economic meltdown that has choked their sales and frozen loans, the White House and congressional Democrats are headed for stalemate over how much government money should go toward helping them.
Behind the logjam is a troubling reality for the car companies: Bailout fatigue has set in at the White House and on Capitol Hill, where many in both parties have spent the past few weeks being berated by constituents for agreeing to the $700 billion rescue of the U.S. financial industry.
The financial situation for General Motors Corp., Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler LLC grows more precarious still. GM has said it could run out of cash by year’s end without government aid.
A Senate auto bailout bill disclosed Monday noted that 355,000 U.S. workers are employed directly by the auto industry, and an additional 4.5 million work in related industries. That does not count the 1 million retirees, spouses and dependents who rely on the firms for retirement and health care benefits.
Still, not only has President George W. Bush made it clear he does not want to dole out any new aid for the automakers, congressional officials say his administration has privately informed top Democrats it will not even use at least half of the huge rescue fund approved last month to aid the financial industry.
The Senate Democrats’ measure would carve out a portion of the Wall Street bailout money to pay for loans to U.S. automakers and their domestic suppliers, but aides in both parties and lobbyists tracking the plan privately acknowledge they are far short of the votes to pass it.
The White House and congressional Republicans insist that any automaker bailout money instead come from redirecting a $25 billion loan program approved by Congress in September to help the industry develop more fuel-efficient vehicles. The Republicans would lift restrictions on that money to speed it to the carmakers.
Democrats want to leave that money alone and give the industry an additional $25 billion from the financial bailout funds.
Sen. Harry Reid, leader of the Democratic majority, said he would hold a vote this week on a bill that pairs the auto industry bailout with an extension of jobless aid. In an acknowledgment of the long odds that face such a plan, Reid also laid the groundwork for a straight up-or-down vote on the more widely supported unemployment measure, which is probably all that can pass this week.
Democratic Speaker Nancy Pelosi, who controls the House of Representatives agenda, has held off scheduling a vote on an auto bailout bill until it becomes clear whether such a measure could pass the Senate. It would need a 60-vote supermajority to advance, which means the Democrats could not win a party-line vote.
The Senate’s proposed auto aid bill would provide loans with initial interest rates of 5 percent in exchange for a stake in the companies or warrants that would let the government profit from future gains. Loan applicants would have to give the government a plan for "long-term financial viability."
But the measure stops short of giving the government a say over the firms’ operations through an oversight board or hard limits on executive compensation. While taking advantage of the program, the companies could not pay dividends or award bonuses to executives making more than $250,000 a year or give large "golden parachute" payments to departing top managers.
A House version drafted by Democratic Rep. Barney Frank goes further, requiring that U.S. automakers immediately repay the loans next spring if they do not give the government an acceptable restructuring plan that shows they can survive, including details on how they will transition to making vehicles that use less gasoline.
"(W)e think it essential that loans be linked to significant progress in the ability of the companies to eventually market energy-efficient cars with broad public appeal," Frank, the Financial Services Committee chairman, said in a statement Monday night.
Unlike the Senate measure, the House plan would be limited strictly to the Big Three automakers.
A vote on the Senate measure could come as early as Thursday.
"I ask my colleagues to show the American people that in the face of tremendous economic pain and uncertainty, we will not wait until January," Reid said as he opened a special postelection congressional session.
The White House, meanwhile, took pains to clarify its position on the bailout, saying the administration "does not want U.S. automakers to fail." But press secretary Dana Perino said the administration steadfastly opposes drawing funds from the $700 billion bailout plan to help Detroit.
President-elect Barack Obama has said he believes aid for U.S. carmakers is needed, but he has not specified where it should come from. He says the money should come as part of a long-term plan for the industry.
Democratic Sen. Carl M. Levin, whose home state Michigan is the heartland of the automotive industry, drew up the Senate Democrats’ bill. He spoke with Obama on Monday and said the president-elect has "not signed off on any particular language or any particular approach" but generally backs loans to the struggling auto industry.
With all sides agreeing something should be done, Levin said, "There’s a reasonably good chance that we can get this done this week."
Top House Democrats also were putting the finishing touches Monday on their own bill to provide auto industry loans in exchange for some sort of government stake in the companies, with strict limits on executive compensation, new environmental requirements and the elimination of dividends.
The chief executives of the Detroit auto companies and the head of the United Auto Workers union are to make their case for the aid Tuesday at a Senate Banking Committee hearing. The House Financial Services panel is to hold a similar session Wednesday.
But the package is a tough sell to the public. In a Gallup Poll conducted Nov. 7-9, only 20 percent said providing loans and other help to auto companies should be a top economic priority for Obama. Given five choices, aid to the auto industry tied with assistance for large financial institutions as least-favored options.
Most — 60 percent — said enacting stricter regulations for financial institutions should be a No. 1 goal. About half named helping homeowners, about the same number supported cutting taxes for the middle class, while a third cited a new economic stimulus package.
"The automobile industry, obviously, is of enormous importance in our country, and not to have the automobile industry would have very, very severe economic consequences," said Republican Sen. Arlen Specter. But, he said, "The question that I would submit, and heard from my constituents: ‘Who’s next?’"
Some top Republicans are against any additional federal automaker help, no matter where it comes from.
"There’s no indication that the car companies would do anything different than what they’ve been doing, which has been a big failure, which is why they need the bailout. And there’s no reason to throw money at a problem that is not going to get solved," said Sen. Jon Kyl, the No. 2 Senate Republican.